Nutrients of rye

Whole grain rye flour contains, as a percentage of dry matter, 56–70% starch, 8–13% proteins, 2–3% lipids, 2% ash and 15–21% total dietary fiber. In addition, the outer layer of the endosperm, the aleurone layer, is rich in minerals, vitamins, especially B-vitamins, and phytochemicals.

The comparison between the chemical compositions and vitamin and mineral content of rye, wheat and oat grains are shown in the tables below. Due to differences in analyzing methods the values are not totally comparable. In Finland and Denmark, rye flour generally means whole grain rye with an extraction rate of 100 or close to it. In Sweden and Norway the most commonly used rye flour has an extraction rate of 80 or close to it.

Macronutrient compositions of rye, wheat and oat grains (% of dry matter)1

  Whole grain rye flour, 100 % extraction Whole grain wheat flour, 100 % extraction White wheat flour, 66 % extraction Oat Groat

Fat

8-13

12-14 13  13-16

Protein

2-3

3 1 6-7

Starch

56-70

67-70 84 54-64

Ash

2

2 0.5 2

Total fibre

15-17

10-13 3 11-13

of which soluble fibre

3-4

 1-2

 1-2

 3-5

1Table has been remodelled from the following references: Andersson et al. 1993, Clydesdale 1994, Hansen et al. 2004, Härkönen et al. 1997, Lasztity 1998, Nilson et al. 1997, Welch 1995, Vollendorff and Marlet 1991, Åman et al. 1997

 

Vitamin and mineral content of rye, wheat and oat flours (per 100 g)2

  Whole grain rye flour, 100 % extraction Whole grain wheat flour, 100 % extraction White wheat flour, 72 % extraction Oatmeal

Vitamin E (mg)

1.6 1.4 0.3 1.5

Thiamin (mg)

 0.40  0.47  0.31*  0.90

Riboflavin (mg)

 0.22  0.09  0.03  0.09

Niacin equivalents (mg)

 2.6  8.2  3.6*  3.4

Vitamin B6 (mg)

 0.35  0.5  0.13  0.33

Folate (µg)

 78  57  22

 60

Potassium (mg)

 410  340  150  350

Calcium (mg)

 32  38  140*  52

Magnesium (mg)

 92  120  20  110

Iron (mg)

 2.7  3.9  2.0*  3.8

Zinc (mg)

 3.0  3.9  0.6  3.3

*Values for fortified flour

2Table has been remodelled from reference Buttriss 2006

 

Buttriss, J.L. (2006). Rye: the overlooked cereal. Nutr Bull 31: 3-5.

Hansen et al. 2004

Lasztity 1998

Härkönen, H., Pessa, E., Suortti T. and Poutanen, K. (1997). Distribution and Some Properties of Cell Wall Polysaccharides in Rye Milling Fractions. J Cereal Sci 26: 95-104.

Nilson, M., Härköinen, H., Hallmans, G., Knudsen, K., Mazur, W. and Aldercreutz, H. (1997). Content of Nutrients and Lignans in Roller Milled Fractions of Rye. J Sci Food Agric 73: 143-148.

Åman et al. 1997

Welch 1995

Clydesdale 1994

Andersson et al. 1993

Vollendorff and Marlet 1991