Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer of men in western countries. Overweight, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia have been connected to the risk and severity of prostate cancer. Rye with its several bioactive compounds and high fibre content has been proposed to be one diet factor that could reduce the risk of this hormone dependent cancer.
Few studies have investigated the link between rye consumption and prostate cancer. Prospective studies have shown that diet rich in whole grain rye reduces prostate-specific antigen plasma levels in men with prostate cancer. In an epidemiological study daily rye bread consumption in adolescence was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer diagnoses and the risk of advanced prostate cancer. On the other hand, in one epidemiological study no association was found between high rye intake and prostate cancer risk. Thus, the research on this area is still inconclusive.
Torfadottir JE, Valdimarsdottir UA, Mucci L, Stampfer M, Kasperzyk JL, Fall K, Tryggvadottir L, Aspelund T, Olafsson O, Harris TB, Jonsson E, Tulinius H, Adami HO, Gudnason V, Steingrimsdottir L. (2012). Rye bread consumption in early life and reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 23:941-50.
Egeberg R, Olsen A, Christensen J, Johnsen NF, Loft S, Overvad K, Tjønneland A. (2011). Intake of whole-grain products and risk of prostate cancer among men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 22:1133-9.
Moazzami AA, Zhang JX, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G, Johansson JE, Andersson SO. (2011). Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients. J Nutr 141:2126-32.
Landberg R, Andersson SO, Zhang JX, Johansson JE, Stenman UH, Adlercreutz H, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G. (2010). Rye whole grain and bran intake compared with refined wheat decreases urinary C-peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen in men with prostate cancer. J Nutr 140:2180-6.
Bylund A, Lundin E, Zhang JX, Nordin A, Kaaks R, Stenman UH, Aman P, Adlercreutz H, Nilsson TK, Hallmans G, Bergh A, Stattin P. (2003). Randomised controlled short-term intervention pilot study on rye bran bread in prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 12:407-15.
Landberg R, Andersson SO, Zhang JX, Johansson JE, Stenman UH, Adlercreutz H, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G. (2010) Rye whole grain and bran intake compared with refined wheat decreases urinary C-peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen in men with prostate cancer. J Nutr 140:2180-2186.