High fiber diets containing whole grain help to control body weight. The most important mechanism is undoubtedly that whole grain food may increase the bulk of the food and probably long-term satiety associated with lowering of energy intake. Intervention studies have showed that whole grain rye porridge and bread at breakfast haves prolonged satiating properties up to 8 h after consumption as compared to refined wheat. The satiety may not only be affected by the cereal type but also by its processing and fractions, the way of cooking and the overall structure of the meal.
A second and possibly significant mechanism is that whole grain fiber complex may decrease the availability of energy from a diet. There is an increase in the excretion of nitrogen, fat and energy from the small intestine in individuals eating a whole grain rye diet and this is correlated with the dry matter of the small intestinal content. The conclusion has been that some factor in rye, possible the fiber, restricts the uptake of energy from the small intestine. The energy obtained from whole grain also depends on the extent of fiber fermentation in the large intestine. However, concerning the long term consumption of whole grain products body weight should be affected by the continuous loss of energy. A weight decreasing effect associated with whole grain intake has strongly been suggested in epidemiological studies.
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